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Topic 1 + Quiz
Background: Without a sense of context, history is anachronistic.
Primary sources: Without documentary evidence, history
The first of two topic assignments per week involving both background and primary sources.
Each week the Context assignments will be listed on a page like this. This first week, a Stonehenge assignment subsitutes for the usual Context assignment; and a Shape of the Earth assignment substitutes for the usual Evidence assignment. Hint: You may want to print this page and keep the questions below in front of you to answer them as you complete
the assigned readings.
Here are the Stonehenge assignments. As you work your way through these readings, you will be introduced to some
of the important ideas of archaeoastronomy, the interpretation of ancient astronomical
structures, with particular reference to Stonehenge. You will learn some things
that may be new to you about how the Sun and Moon move along the horizon at
different times of the year. But I hope also that you will reflect on what it
takes to study history.
- Watch the Week 2 Context Video at Janux.
- Imagine that you are planning to visit Stonehenge. To plan what you will want to see in person, explore the Stonehenge World Heritage Site.
Read the Facts and Figures page, look at the Interactive map, and view the panorama. Read the descriptions of the following aspects of Stonehenge: Burial Mounds, King Barrows, Normantown Down Barrows, the Avenue, the Cursus, Vespasian's Camp, Winterbourne Stoke Barrows, and Woodhenge. How appropriate are the names given to these sites and structures? Do the names carry particular assumptions about their history and purpose?
- Imagine that you are making a visit to St. Louis, and you want to plan a side-trip to visit Woodhenge in the Cahokia Mounds. Read the Information page for Woodhenge, and browse any other pages that interest you on the Cahokia Mounds website.
- Imagine that you are driving through Nebraska and Wyoming, and wish to plan a stop at Carhenge and the Medicine Wheel. Find their locations on a map and note anything of interest about them.
- What interests you about all these sites? Who made them? What were they made for? What do they reveal about the natural knowledge of their makers? What do they suggest about the human effort to understand the past?
- Read these pages about Stonehenge and our effort to understand the past.
- Part 1
- Part 2
- Part 3
- Part 4
- Part 5
- Browse the "Appendix" of Michael
Crowe, Theories of the World from Antiquity to the Copernican Revolution,
pp. 198-220. Don't worry about the undefined vocabulary or other technical
aspects that are not explained in the assignments above; just read this appendix for the "gist"
of what Crowe says about Stonehenge.
TOPIC QUIZ: The statements are either True or False. When you take the quiz
you will see 12 of these statements, chosen at random, worth 2 points each.
T or F? A trilithon at Stonehenge
consists of a group of three massive stones, with one lying horizontal across
the top of the other two.
T or F? Stone circles are geographically
confined to a narrow region in southern England.
T or F? Natural phenomena are
the explanations offered by scientists, usually involving hidden causes.
T or F? In this class you will
need to memorize approximately two dozen dates.
T or F? The heel stone shown in
the logo for this week is approximately 16 feet tall, and lies outside the
circle of Sarsen stones and trilithons.
T or F? Our knowledge of the past
is incomplete and ever-changing.
T or F? Historical knowledge is
based on presently-existing artifacts and evidence.
T or F? 17th century writers were
in general agreement that Stonehenge was a prehistoric construction, not
built by historical people such as the Romans or the Danes.
T or F? Knowledge of correct modern
science is the basis for investigation of the science of the past.
T or F? An azimuth of 130 degrees
lies to the southeast.
T or F? On summer solstice, the
sun rises farthest south on the horizon.
T or F? On winter solstice, the
sun rises farthest south on the horizon.
T or F? In Norman or at Stonehenge,
the Sun rises straight east and sets due west every day of the year.
T or F? The rising and setting
locations of the Moon move north and south along the horizon in a regular
T or F? On a lunar standstill,
the Moon rises straight east and sets due west.
T or F? Rational reconstruction
is one of the basic principles of valid historiography.
T or F? Presentism, or the Whig
Interpretation of history, is one of the most common historiographical fallacies.
T or F? “Stonehenge was the first
astronomical observatory” is an example of rational reconstruction.
T or F? Mathematical methods are
important sources of evidence for the study of the history of science.
T or F? Archaeological methods
are important sources of evidence for the study of the history of science.
T or F? Without evidence, history
T or F? “Did the builders of Stonehenge
believe in life on other worlds” is a valid historical question.
"History teaches us that man learns nothing from history." Disraeli